The civilization of ancient Rome, the cultural, religious, social and political aspects of Rome finds a definite facet in the structure of the Byzantine calendar which was very popular at that era. The leap day of the Byzantine calendar was obtained in the same manner as in that of the bissextile day of the original Roman version of the Julian calendar.
It was in the year 1453BC the Byzantine Empire did collapse which also resulted into fading away of the glory of the Byzantine calendar although it was used by Russia for quite a reasonable period of time. Stay connected to 123newyear.com to know more on Byzantine Calendar.
The early Romans attempted to syncronize the months with the first crescent moon following a new moon resulting in some months of 29 days and some of more. Every other year, February was shortened and a leap month (Intercalaris) was added in an attempt to realign lunar cycles with the solar calendar. The lengths of the years in a four year cycle of this lunisolar calendar were 355, 377, 355, and 378 days. This added up to 4 days too many to stay in sync with the solar year.
The Romans referred to years in a couple of ways. Each year was recorded as a length of time from the traditional founding of Rome, in 753 BC. The Latin term Ab Urbe Condita, abbreviated as AUC, literally meaning from the founding of the city, was the correct terminology.
Additionally, years could be referred to as the year in which a particular Consul was in office. As examples, the modern year 59 BC, would've been known as 694 AUC, or the year of the first consulship of Gaius Julius Caesar. Three days were structured with particular importance in the Roman calendar.
In the calendar of the ancient Romans, the months contained three primary markers – the Kalends, the Nones and the Ides. The Kalends were always the first day of the month. The Nones were usually the 5th but sometimes the 7th, and the Ides were the 15th but sometimes the 13th.
The Romans did not have weekdays in the same sense as our Monday, Tuesday, etc., however, they did have a defined markers within each month. Originally, the month and the markers were based on the moon.
Consualia was a festival celebrated on August 21. Feast of the grainary god Consus. On this day the Pontifex Maximus and the Vestal Virgins would oversee the removal of dirt from the top of Consus' underground altar in the Circus Maximus and the sacrifice of the first fruits to him upon it. Working animals such as horses and oxen were given a break on this day, and garlands were hung around their necks.